Heinkel He 111 Edit
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Often described as a "wolf in sheep's clothing", it masqueraded as a transport aircraft, though its actual purpose was to provide the Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber.Perhaps the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively glazed, bullet-shaped "greenhouse" nose of later versions, the Heinkel was the most numerous and the primary Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. It fared well until
The Battle of Britain, when its weak defensive armament, relatively low speed, and poor manoeuvrability were exposed.
Nevertheless, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European Theatre. It was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber during the Battle of the Atlantic, and a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western,Eastern, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African Fronts.
Although constantly upgraded, the Heinkel He 111 became obsolete during the latter part of the war. It was intended to be replaced by the Luftwaffe's Bomber B project, but the delays and eventual cancellation of the project forced the Luftwaffe to continue using the He 111 until the end of the war. Manufacture ceased in 1944, at which point, piston-engine bomber production was largely halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force defunct, the He 111 was used for transport and logistics.
The design of the Heinkel endured after the war in the CASA 2.111. The Spanish received a batch of He 111H-16s in 1943 along with an agreement to licence-build Spanish versions.
Its airframe was produced in Spain under license by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA. The design differed significantly in powerplant only.
The Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973.
Operational history Edit
Main article: Heinkel He 111 operational history
The Heinkel He 111 served on all the German military fronts in the European Theatre of World War II. Beginning the war as a medium bomber it supported the German campaigns in the field until 1943 when, owing to Western Allied and Soviet air superiority, it reverted to a transport aircraft role.
German-built He 111s remained in service in Spain after the end of the Second World War, being supplemented by Spanish licence-built CASA 2.111s from 1950. The last two German-built aircraft remained in service until at least 1958
- He 111 A-0
- 10 aircraft built based on He 111 V3, two used for trials at Rechlin, rejected by Luftwaffe, all 10 were sold to China".
- He 111 B-0
- Pre-production aircraft, similar to He 111 A-0, but with DB600Aa engines.
- He 111 B-1
- Production aircraft as B-0, but with DB600C engines. Defensive armament consisted of a flexible Ikaria turret in the nose A Stand, a B Stand with one DL 15 revolving gun-mount and a C Stand with one MG 15.
- He 111 B-2
- As B-1, but with DB600GG engines, and extra radiators on either side of the engine nacelles under the wings. Later the DB 600Ga engines were added and the wing surface coolers withdrawn.
- He 111 B-3
- Modified B-1 for training purposes.
- He 111 C-0
- Six pre-production aircraft.
- He 111 D-0
- Pre-production aircraft with DB600Ga engines.
- He 111 D-1
- Production aircraft, only a few built. Notable for the installation of the FuG X, or FuG 10, designed to operate over longer ranges. Auxiliary equipment contained direction finding Peil G V and FuBI radio blind landing aids.
- He 111 E-0
- Pre-production aircraft, similar to B-0, but with Jumo 211 A-1 engines.
- He 111 E-1
- Production aircraft with Jumo 211 A-1 powerplants. Prototypes were powered by Jume 210G as which replaced the original DB 600s.
- He 111 E-2
- Non production variant. No known variants built. Designed with Jumo 211 A-1s and A-3s.
- He 111 E-3
- Production bomber. Same design as E-2, but upgraded to standard Jumo 211 A-3s.
- He 111 E-4
- Half of 2,000 kg (4,410 lb) bomb load carried externally.
- He 111 E-5
- Fitted with several internal auxiliary fuel tanks.
- He 111 F-0
- Pre-production aircraft similar to E-5, but with a new wing of simpler construction with a straight rather than curved taper, and Jumo 211 A-1 engines.
- He 111 F-1
- Production bomber, 24 were exported to Turkey.
- He 111 F-2
- 20 were built. The F-2 was based on the F-1, differing only in installation of optimised wireless equipment.
- He 111 F-3
- Planned reconnaissance version. Bomb release equipment replaced with RB cameras. It was to have Jumo 211 A-3 powerplants.
- He 111 F-4
- A small number of staff communications aircraft were built under this designation. Equipment was similar to the G-5.
- He 111 F-5
- The F-5 was not put into production. The already available on the P variant showed it to be superior.
- He 111 G-0
- Pre-production transportation aircraft built, featured new wing introduced on F-0.
- He 111 G-3
- Also known as V14, fitted with BMW 132Dc radial engines.
- He 111 G-4
- Also known as V16, fitted with DB600G engines.
- He 111 G-5
- Four aircraft with DB600Ga engines built for export to Turkey.
- He 111 J-0
- Pre-production torpedo bomber similar to F-4, but with DB600CG engines.
- He 111 J-1
- Production torpedo bomber, 90 built, but re-configured as a bomber.
- He 111 L
- Alternative designation for the He 111 G-3 civil transport aircraft.
- He 111 P-0
- Pre-production aircraft featured new straight wing, new glazed nose, DB601Aa engines, and a ventral gondola for gunner (rather than "dust-bin" on previous models).
- He 111 P-1
- Production aircraft, fitted with three MG 15s as defensive armament.
- He 111 P-2
- Had FuG 10 radio in place of FuG IIIaU. Defensive armament increased to five MG 15s.
- He 111 P-3
- Dual control trainer fitted with DB601 A-1 powerplants.
- He 111 P-4
- Fitted with extra armour, three extra MG 15s, and provisions for two externally mounted bomber racks. Powerplants consisted of DB601 A-1s. The internal bomb bay was replaced with an 835 L fuel tank and a 120 L oil tank.
- He 111 P-5
- The P-5 was a pilot trainer. Some 24 examples were built. The variant was powered by DB 601A engines.
- He 111 P-6
- Some of the P-6s were powered by the DB 601N engines. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 received these engines, as they had greater priority.
- He 111 P-6/R2
- Equipped with /Rüstsätz 2 field conversions later in war of surviving aircraft to glider tugs.
- He 111 P-7
- Never built.
- He 111 P-8
- Its existence and production is in doubt.
- He 111 P-9
- It was intended for export to the Hungarian Air Force, by the project founder for lack of DB 601E engines. Only a small number were built, and were used in the Luftwaffe as towcraft.
- He 111 H-0
- Pre-production aircraft similar to P-2 but with Jumo 211A-1 engines, pioneering the use of the Junkers Jumo 211 series of engines for the H-series as standard.
- He 111 H-1
- Production aircraft. Fitted with FuG IIIaU and later FuG 10 radio communications.
- He 111 H-2
- This version was fitted with improved armament. Two D Stands (waist guns) in the fuselage giving the variant some five MG 15 Machine guns.
- He 111 H-3
- Similar to H-2, but with Jumo 211 A-3 engines. Like the H-2, five MG 15 machine guns were standard. One A Stand MG FF cannon could be installed in the nose and an MG 15 could be installed in the tail unit.
- He 111 H-4
- Fitted with Jumo 211D engines, late in production changed to Jumo 211F engines, and two external bomb racks. Two PVC 1006L racks for carrying torpedoes could be added.
- He 111 H-5
- Similar to H-4, all bombs carried externally, internal bomb bay replaced by fuel tank. The variant was to be a longer range torpedo bomber.
- He 111 H-6
- Torpedo bomber, could carry two LT F5b torpedoes externally, powered by Jumo 211F-1 engines, had six MG 15s and one MG FF cannon in forward gondola.
- He 111 H-7
- Designed as a night bomber. Similar to H-6, tail MG 17 removed, ventral gondola removed, and armoured plate added. Fitted with Kuto-Nase barrage balloon cable-cutters.
- He 111 H-8
- The H-8 was a rebuild of H-3 or H-5 aircraft, but with balloon cable-cutting fender. The H-8 was powered by Jumo 211D-1s.
- He 111 H-8/R2
- Equipped with /Rüstsätz 2 field conversion of H-8 into glider tugs, balloon cable-cutting equipment removed.
- He 111 H-9
- Based on H-6, but with Kuto-Nase balloon cable-cutters.
- He 111 H-10
- Similar to H-6, but with 20 mm MG/FF cannon in ventral gondola, and fitted with Kuto-Nase balloon cable-cutters. Powered by Jumo 211 A-1s or D-1s.
- He 111 H-11
- Had a fully enclosed dorsal gun position and increased defensive armament and armour. The H-11 was fitted with Jumo 211 F-2s.
- He 111 H-11/R1
- As H-11, but equipped with /Rüstsätz 1 field conversion kit, with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81Z twin-gun units at waist positions.
- He 111 H-11/R2
- As H-11, but equipped with /Rüstsätz 2 field conversion kit, for conversion to a glider tug.
- He 111 H-12
- Modified to carry Hs 293A missiles, fitted with FuG 203b Kehl transmitter, and ventral gondola deleted.
- He 111 H-14
- Pathfinder, fitted with FuG FuMB 4 Samos and FuG 16 radio equipment.
- He 111 H-14/R1
- Glider tug version.
- He 111 H-15
- The H-15 was intended as a launch pad for the Blohm & Voss BV 246.
He 111 H-16 Edit
- Fitted with Jumo 211 F-2 engines and increased defensive armament of MG 131 machine guns, twin MG 81Zs, and a MG FF cannon.
- He 111 H-16/R1
- As H-16, but with MG 131 in power-operated dorsal turret.
- He 111 H-16/R2
- As H-16, but converted to a glider tug.
- He 111 H-16/R3
- As H-16, modified as a pathfinder.
- He 111 H-18
- Based on H-16/R3, was a pathfinder for night operations.
- He 111 H-20
- Defensive armament similar to H-16, but some aircraft feature power-operated dorsal turrets.
- He 111 H-20/R1
- Could carry 16 paratroopers, fitted with jump hatch.
- He 111 H-20/R2
- Was a cargo carrier and glider tug.
- He 111 H-20/R3
- Was a night bomber.
- He 111 H-20/R4
- Could carry twenty 50 kg (110 lb) SC 50 bombs.
- He 111 H-21
- Based on the H-20/R3, but with Jumo 213 engines.
- He 111 H-22
- Re-designated and modified H-6, H-16, and H-21's used to air launch V1 flying-bombs.
- He 111 H-23
- Based on H-20/Rüstsätz 1 (/R1) field conversion kit, but with Jumo 213 A-1 engines.
- He 111 R
- High altitude bomber project.
- He 111 U
- A spurious designation applied for propaganda purposes to the Heinkel He 119 high-speed reconnaissance bomber design which set an FAI record in November 1937. True identity only becomes clear to the Allies after World War II.
- He 111 Z-1
- Two He 111 airframes coupled together by a new central wing panel possessing a fifth Jumo 211 engine, used as a glider tug for Messerschmitt Me 321.
- He 111 Z-2
- Long-range bomber variant based on Z-1.
- He 111 Z-3
- Long-range reconnaissance variant based on Z-1.
CASA 2.111B (Heinkel He 111 H-16)
- CASA 2.111
- The Spanish company CASA also produced a number of heavily modified He 111s under licence for indigenous use. These models were designated CASA 2.111 and served until 1975.
- Army Type 98 Medium Bomber
- Evaluation and proposed production of the He 111 for the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
Specifications (He 111 H-6) Edit
Data from Nowarra, Heinz J. Heinkel He 111: A Documentary History
- Crew: 5 (pilot, navigator/bombardier/nose gunner, ventral gunner, dorsal gunner/radio operator, side gunner)
- Length: 16.4 m (53 ft 9½ in)
- Wingspan: 22.60 m (74 ft 2 in)
- Height: 4.00 m (13 ft 1½ in)
- Wing area: 87.60 m² (942.92 ft²)
- Empty weight: 8,680 kg (19,136lb lb)
- Loaded weight: 12,030 kg (26,500 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 14,000 kg (30,864 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Jumo 211F-1 or 211F-2 liquid-cooled inverted V-12, 986 kW (1,300 hp (F-1) or 1,340 (F-2)) each
- Maximum speed: 440 km/h (273 mph)
- Range: 2,300 km (1,429 mi) with maximum fuel
- Service ceiling: 6,500 m (21,330 ft)
- Rate of climb: 20 minutes to 5,185 m (17,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 137 kg/m² (28.1 lb/ft²)
- Power/mass: .082 kW/kg (.049 hp/lb)
- up to 7 × 7.92 mm MG 15 or MG 81 machine guns, (2 in the nose, 1 in the dorsal, 2 in the side, 2 in the ventral) some of them replaced or augmented by
- 1 × 20 mm MG FF cannon (central nose mount or forward ventral position)
- 1 × 13 mm MG 131 machine gun (mounted dorsal and/or ventral rear positions)
- 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb) in the main internal bomb bay.
- Up to 3,600 kilograms (7,900 lb) could be carried externally. External bomb racks blocked the internal bomb bay. Carrying bombs externally increased weight and drag and impaired the aircraft's performance significantly. Carrying the maximum load usually required rocket-assisted take-off.
Notable appearances in media Edit
The He 111 is the most often portrayed German bomber in Second World War war related shows (often using its Spanish built CASA 2.111 cousin as stand in), with the quintessential example being the movie Battle of Britain.
Rare Version: He 111Z Zwilling Edit
Two He 111 airframes coupled together by a new central wing panel possessing a fifth Jumo 211 engine, used as a glider tug for Messerschmitt Me 321.